Leave a comment

ASTM E methods for grain counting using microscope reticle. cited ASTM standards, is concerned with the measurement of grain size when the grains are . What is ASTM E standard, and why is this of importance? Number”. Therefore, an image with very small size grains will have more boundaries, resulting in. Using ASTM E as our accredited test specification, and an optical microscope , we can determine the average grain size in various metallic materials.

Author: Nekora Goltidal
Country: Spain
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Marketing
Published (Last): 23 July 2016
Pages: 421
PDF File Size: 12.66 Mb
ePub File Size: 13.17 Mb
ISBN: 913-1-74774-722-8
Downloads: 6403
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Faegor

Because Grain Size analysis can be performed reliably in gray scale mode where setting threshold parameters is simpler than color modethe chosen camera should be capable of imaging in gray scale mode as opposed to color only. The three basic procedures for grain size estimation are: The three basic procedures for grain size estimation are:.

A PC meeting the minimum system requirements of the camera and image-analysis software, and high-resolution monitor are required. Specimens with Non-equiaxed Grain Shapes. Grain analysis via the Planimetric method. Although this may sound confusing, a general rule of thumb is that most common material-science siize specific cameras 3MP or greater considering the pixel size of most common CCD and CMOS sensors ashm recommended for Grains analysis.

What’s more, many metallurgical-specific microscope image-analysis software packages can be configured to archive the grains results automatically into a spreadsheet or optional integrated database.

These test methods do not cover methods to characterize the nature of these distributions. Contact Gtain Get a Quote. Enter the modern digital metallurgical QC laboratory. Fracture Grain Size Method. The test methods may also be used for any structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts.

This way, the comparison is performed directly in the microscope, where the operator can see both the sample at question as well as a “golden” image simultaneously. Eize Resources Application Notes Back to Resources Grain Size Analysis in Metals and Alloys Background In the metallographic sizr, analyzing ast in metallic and alloy samples, such as aluminum or steel, is important for quality-control.


To ensure enough pixels are provided to sample and digitally reconstruct the smallest detail, many microscopists follow “Nyquist Theorem”, which states that 2 to 3 pixels are required to sample the smallest detail, or optical resolution. Since the results are calculated internally within the image-analysis software, axtm guesswork attributed to the human element is removed.

In many instances, overall accuracy and repeatability, as well as reproducibility has shown improvement. For higher degrees of accuracy in determining average grain size, the intercept or planimetric procedures may be used. An accurate count does require marking off of the grains as they are counted.

The grain size of specimens with two phases, or a phase and a constituent, can be measured using a combination of two methods, a measurement of the volume fraction of the phase and an intercept or planimetric count see Section These distributions are approximately log graih. Therefore, alloy composition and processing must be carefully controlled to obtain the desired grain size. Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard. Results of Interlaboratory Grain Size Determinations.

Dividing the lens resolution 1. Additionally, how can the data be automatically archived and reports automatically generated-all while saving valuable time and money?

Many software packages are designed to comply aize ASTM E and a wide-range of international standards, and can be implemented with minimal efforts. At the time of graln, the user should determine if the Intercept or Planimetric method is more appropriate.

How can a metallurgical quality-control laboratory implement a turn-key, fully-automated grains analysis solution, eliminating potential inaccuracies and subjectivity introduced by the human factor, while complying with ASTM E or other international standards? Or, instead of comparing to a micrograph poster, one can insert an eyepiece reticle containing images of predefined grain size patterns, directly into the microscope’s optical path.

When considering a digital camera for Grains analysis, more important than digital resolution is the pixel size, or resulting pixel density. Since the grain size is being estimated by the operator, these methodologies can produce inaccurate and unrepeatable results, often not reproducible between different operators.


Most metals are crystalline in nature and contain internal boundaries, commonly known as “grain boundaries”.

Grain Size Analysis in Metals and Alloys

Heyn Linear Intercept Procedure. Unlike former techniques where operators performed a visual estimation of the grain size, or “G-Number” siz by eye, modern material-science microscope specific image-analysis software allows the grain size to be calculated accurately and repeatedly, as human intervention is minimized. When considering a turn-key solution for automatic grains analysis, working directly with an experienced material-science specific microscope manufacturer is of utmost importance, as they can assist you in every step of this process, from equipment selection to full deployment.

Sorry, this page is not available in your country Let us know what you’re looking for by filling out the form below. Determination of spatial grain size, that is, measurement of the size of the three-dimensional grains in the specimen volume, is beyond the scope of these test methods.

Grain Size Analysis in Metals and Alloys

This site uses cookies to enhance performance, analyze traffic, and for ads measurement purposes. Because an accurate count can be made without need of marking off intercepts or intersections, the intercept method is faster than the planimetric method for the same level of precision. Also, choosing a camera that can achieve a fast refresh-rate in live mode will help when focusing or positioning the sample.

Especially designed for darkfield observation and the examination of scratches or etchings on polished surfaces. Reports, containing relevant analysis data and associated images, can also be generated with the push of a button-all with minimal training.